1991 and the Russian Revolution: Sources, Conceptual Categories, Analytical Frameworks* Stephen Kotkin Princeton University A man sets himself the task of drawing the world. The February Revolution World War I weakened tsarism. Focusing on the Russian Revolution in its widest sense, Fitzpatrick covers not only the events of 1917 and what preceded them, but the nature of the social transformation brought about by the Bolsheviks after they took power. Nothing came close to it in importance – a fact recognised at the time and which continues to prove compelling a full century later. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the system of autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal Provisional Government (Duma), resulting in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. One positive outcome is that the czarist rule comes to an end and gives say to the workers and peasants. However, the majority of the population in Russia was the peasants. But nothing in history is inevitable. There were also unsubstantiated rumours that Empress Alexandra, a German by origin, betrayed military secrets to the enemy. Russian Revolution of 1905, uprising that was instrumental in convincing Tsar Nicholas II to attempt the transformation of the Russian government from an autocracy into a constitutional monarchy. Due to population growth, taxes and crop failures, the pheasants lived in widespread poverty and famine. First, it conceptualizes the revolution as a process contingent of a local and global historical context. His clothes, hair, chin, venue, even his drink, it's all soooooo Socialist?! In doing so, the Bolsheviks aimed at ‘eliminating the autonomy of universities, doing away with the university faculties, especially the humanities whose curricula would clash with communist ideology, to put an end to the ‘elitist’ character of higher education, to develop vocational education’ (Anonymous, Lenin’s Social Reforms 1917-1924). We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. Historical Background. The resources of poor people are very limited, and its effect can be seen in their diet. This revolution changed the history in so mamy different ways due it bieng the collapse of the Russian empire and the birth of the USSR(Union of Socialist Soviet Republics). It had both advantages and disadvantages. Lenin became a darling of Russians because he guaranteed them total peace by ending the war. The Russian Revolution also has to be viewed in light of Russia's own national history. However, religion was not the only thing abolished; many of Russia’s talented people had been executed as they were also seen as a threat to the reputation of the USSR. To achieve this, Lenin made the right to divorce, rights to maternity leave, voting, education, standing for office and abortion all legal practices for women within Russia. On the Reduction of Secondary Education (Circular on the Cook's Children) Russian Minister of Education Count Ivan Davidovich Delianov recommends conditions that exempt institutions of secondary and higher education from admitting the children of "coachmen, footmen, cooks, laundresses, small shopkeepers and similar people" with the exception of particularly … Though the Russian Revolutions had many benefits, the event brought along with it many social downfalls. This damaged France’s economy for many years to come. The workers on the contrary, had far worse living conditions. They fought and died for this. Because of the strict censorship in Russia, the population simply saw any ideas of independence as being pointless. Very, very bad!!! A string of unsuccessful campaigns brought corruption to the monetary structure of Russia. Their ascent to power ended 1,100 years of imperial rule in the world’s largest nation. Russia was still extremely patriarchal. The Russian Revolutions of 1917 saw the collapse of the Russian Empire, a short-lived provisional government, and the creation of the world's first socialist state under the Bolsheviks. 2. The revolution forced Nicholas II to resign and transformed the Russian Empire into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) or the Soviet Union. Those serfs had poor living conditions, and would support however proposed the best for them, as they wanted to get rid of the inequality between classes, and landlords, to own their land. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. The 1917 Russian Revolution took place in March (Gregorian Calendar). One of the most important armed conflicts in Mexico is known as the"Mexican Revolution", in which the country was in a dictatorship under the military control of Porfirio Diaz , which later would be relieved by Victoriano Huerta. The after effects of the First World War, the Russian Revolution and the Russian Civil war, were devastating on Russia’s economy. Importantly, Lenin transformed Russia into a communist party. Those who attempted to listen or read anything in a manner that did not glorify the Soviet, were severely punished. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Ulyanov - 1870-1924). The Revolution started during World War I, and eventually the Soviet Union was formed. Advantages And Disadvantages Of The 1917 Russian Revolution. In November 1917, Lenin took over Russia and a series of reforms were introduced to institute a new social system in accordance with communist ideology. In 1917, two revolutions completely changed the fabric of Russia. The annual economic growth had fell from 8% to 1.4%. Money doesn 't makes you happy, money just gives you material stuff but not happiness. One hundred years ago, in the fall of 1917, Communists known as Bolsheviks seized power in Russia. In just the Napoleonic Wars alone, over 3.7 million deaths are estimated. At a Women’s Congress in 1918, he stated that ‘the experience of all liberation movements has shown that the success of a revolution depends on how much the women take part in it’ (Zetkin, 1920, The Women’s Question). THE first crucial reform he tried to implement was abolishing of serfdom. There were, of course, two revolutions that year. The 19th century, the Julian calendar, used by Russia, was 12 days behind the Gregorian calendar (used by most of the Western world) until March 1, 1900, when it became 13 days behind. In other words, the Russian Revolution, and the developments thereafter, cannot be viewed only as a product of Communist Revolution, but they also have to be viewed as a product of the social history of Russia, which was itself very brutal and oppressive. Stalin stated at a conference of the Union in February 1931 that Russia was ‘fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced countries’. The October Revolution (Nb. During this period of time, Russia’s traditional monarchy and Tsarist system was abolished and replaced with the world’s first Communist state. Until the industrialization programs led by Stalin in the 1930s, Russia “…resembled pre-modern Europe at virtually every level of the social hierarchy” (7). Primary documents on the Russian Revolution. Effects Of The Russian Revolution. By September 1917, Lenin believed the Russian people were ready for another revolution. Many froze to death in the winter”(“Life in the Ghettos” B). The Russian economy had made great industrial advances in the two decades prior to 1914 – but it was still under-developed and ill-equipped to supply a prolonged war. Before the 1917 revolution in tsarist Russia the majority of the population was made up of peasants living in rural backwardness, as they had done for centuries. Church leaders were arrested, murdered and the USSR destroyed nearly 70000 churches as the Soviet leaders could not have anyone else being opposed to his position. They also worked the fields, dug canals, and worked in mines and. Its population exceeded 100 million people, including dozens of ethnic and language groups. Timelines of the Russian Revolution are often confusing because up until February 1918 Russia used a different calendar than the rest of the Western world. The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire, ... At the same time, urban industrial life had its benefits, though these could be just as dangerous (in terms of social and political stability) as the hardships. ADVERTISEMENTS: (ii) Urban (cities) and rural (villages) life became dependant upon one another. Its causes were not so much economic or social as political and cultural. During the 1800s, Russia’s economy remained focused on agriculture and natural resources. Thus the American Revolution produced refugees at almost four times the rate of the French Revolution. However, with the revival strategies of Vladimir Lenin, Russia began to financially recover and by 1925, during the stir of Lenin’s NEP a ‘major transformation was occurring politically, economically, culturally and spiritually.’. He was one of the most celebrated ones of the Romanov dynasty and influenced church’s, legislation and courts. And while many émigrés eventually returned to France, very few Loyalists returned to the U.S. The Russian Revolution seemed to cause much pain and misery, but the benefits from this revolution appeared to be few if any. One hundred years on from the Russian Revolution, three main lessons emerge from the 75-year Great Soviet Experiment. The Revolution in Russia occured as a reaction to the poverty which was endured by the average Russian at the time. Russia was also embroiled in World War I during this time, which only added to the unrest. The Bolsheviks believed that ‘it was through the classroom that they could condition the mind and the behaviour of children and thus create the new soviet citizens’ (Anonymous, Lenin’s Social Reforms 1917-1924). Large amount of peasant finds jobs in cities, lead to low productivity in agriculture. They lived in cheap wooden houses or dormitories, had very low wages, could only afford to eat black bread, soup, and vodka. Russian Revolution, two revolutions in 1917, the first of which, in February (March, New Style), overthrew the imperial government and the second of which, in October (November), placed the Bolsheviks in power, leading to the creation of the Soviet Union. The Russian Revolution is one of the most seminal events of the 20th century, ushering in a new form of politics to a major world power. Its landmass stretched from Europe to Asia and spanned one-sixth of the globe. Freedom was eradicated throughout Russia and the states took total control of the media this included, newspapers, cinema, and literature. During the Russian Revolution, there was a substantial gap between the rich and poor. Nothing came close to it in importance – a fact recognised at the time and which continues to prove compelling a full century later. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! Before entering the topic in particular it is important that you know briefly what the Mexican Revolution . Russian soldiers in the trenches of World War I. Schmoop Military Defeat in World War I . After the revolution, Lenin created free education throughout Russia. Change can only be considered progress when its overall beneficial consequences are superior than its disadvantages, both including short, and long term consequences. The Russian Revolution of 1917 had many negative outcomes, but it also had some positive outcomes. They were marching to the Winter Palace to present their petition in front of Czar Nicholas II. In years from 1855 to around 1870 he tried to change the Russian backward Russia into powerful European country, which could be compared to the West. Through the New Economic Policy, smaller factories were given back to their previous owners and because the farmers now had a choice to sell their harvest, they had an incentive to produce more grain. But masses were extremely impoverished to level, not seen in the Western world since medieval times.
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